Signal Processing and Time Imaging
Innovative processing solutions have been a specialty of Geokinetics for over 30 years. Our proprietary software and highly experienced staff have set the industry standard for quality, speed and personalized service.
That tradition of excellence continues today with the computing capacity for any size survey, an in-house R&D staff for fast implementation of specific client requests and a wide range of processing capabilities.
Geokinetics is known for our attention to detail, especially in our geometry QC and statics, noise reduction and amplitude preservation techniques, from the very first to the very last step of every seismic data processing sequence. Getting the basics right helps to ensure the quality and accuracy of all of our data processing services.
SOLUTIONS DRIVEN / TECHNOLOGY FOCUSED
Geokinetics has a number of approaches from refraction to tomographic statics, including hand picking refraction events if necessary, to provide statics solutions for any particular survey.
Our noise suppression toolkit includes de-spiking operators, RMS-based scaling methods, noise characterization techniques, FX / FXY deconvolution, and radon-based signal enhancement and model-based noise attenuation techniques.
Geokinetics’ suite of demultiple techniques are designed for applications from the simple to the complex, providing flexible multiple elimination solutions to meet any data challenge.
- F-K filtering
- Well-driven multiple modeling and suppression
- MBNA –model based noise attenuation
- Radon – linear, parabolic, and high-resolution algorithms
- 3-D SRME – surface related multiple elimination
The optimum tool to use will depend on the geological setting and multiple generating mechanisms. Frequently, combinations of tools will be applied.
Signal Enhancement and Spectral Broadening
Geokinetics has a number of pre- or post-stack implementations for signal enhancement and spectral broadening to clean-up, focus, and increase the resolution of your data.
- Trace volume analysis using local 3D tau-p transforms
- Q-based spectral enhancement
- Spectral broadening using local attributes
Migration velocity models are determined iteratively, using a proprietary interactive velocity analysis and QC package for time processing. Designed for 3D projects, the software presents CDP gather displays, velocity spectra, constant velocity stacks and composite stacks, and allows interactive adjustments to NMO corrections to find “best” stacking velocity. Anisotropy can be picked and evaluated along with 4th order NMO. The software also allows discrete horizon analysis and velocity volume generation.
Velocity models are tested using curved ray Kirchhoff migration, and incremental adjustments are made to account for any level of structural complexity.
Geokinetics offers three amplitude-preserving, pre-stack time migration algorithms, although Kirchhoff is the preferred method.
- FK Migration, after Stolt, is a simple and fast exact solution for dips up to 90 degrees in a constant velocity medium.
- Phase Shift Migration, after Gazdag, is a downward continuation algorithm that also operates in the F-K domain. This is also relatively fast and offers an exact solution for dips up to and beyond 90 degrees (turning waves) for a medium in which the velocity varies with time only.
- Kirchhoff Migration is used as the main imaging method for time processing. It is a full featured time-domain migration with a selection of anti-alias options, amplitude compensation, and curved ray capability that images dips up to 90 degrees. In addition, the migration can be relative to a constant datum or topography and may be used in areas with significant lateral velocity variation.
Special areas of expertise include:
- Integrating survey types, including merging surveys with complex geometries, 4D analysis, and matching PP/PZ/PS surveys
- Well-driven parameterization
- Signal enhancement and noise suppression
- Complex geology – imaging sub-salt, lateral velocity variations, fault shadows, steep dips
- Land Processing in general, low signal/noise ratio data, rugged topography including refraction statics, amplitude-offset techniques and multiple attenuation.
- Marine Processing, data merging and rotation, pre stack migration for AVO, preserved amplitude, pre stack interpolation, multiple attenuation and data calibration to synthetic well models.
- AVO and True amplitude, wide angle, wide azimuth